Cancer remains a major health issue in the world and the effectiveness of current therapies is limited resulting in disease recurrence and resistance to therapy.
Therefore to overcome disease recurrence and have improved treatment efficacy there is a continued effort to develop and test new anticancer drugs that are natural or synthetic - (conventional chemotherapeutics, small molecule inhibitors) and biologic (antibody, tumor suppressor genes, oligonucleotide) product.
Activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) by IL-24 and its requirement in IL-24-mediated apoptotic cell killing when combined with radiation was first demonstrated in human A549 lung cancer cells .
Subsequent to JNK activation, modulation of pro- (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-Xl and Bcl-2) proteins were demonstrated in the prostate cancer model.
Knock-down of GADD family of genes using antisense oligonucleotides also abolished IL-24- mediated cell death.